Mohenjo-Daro is an archeological and historic site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. It was built around 3000-4000 BCE and known to be the world’s earliest and largest development in the Indus valley civilization.

Mohenjo-Daro stands for the Mount of The Dead and it was named so because of the reason it was abandoned in its era of developments. The site was rediscovered in the 1920s.

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It is located on the western side of Indus River and in the central area between Hakra River and Ghagghar, in Larkana District, Sindh, Pakistan. Both the rivers are now dried off. But the Indus still flows at its best. Mohenjo-Daro is located at the distance of 30 km from Larkana city.

History of Mohenjo-Daro

Mohenjo-Daro was also known as Harappan civilization and was one of the most advanced civilizations developed in 3000 BCE. From the prehistoric Indus Culture, it was discovered that it was abandoned in 1900 BCE and the cause is not known yet. Mohenjo-Daro was remained undocumented for approximately 4000 years until it was identified in 1920.

Architecture and Structure

With the planned layouts and arranged rectilinear houses and buildings, the Harrapan civilization has proved its efficiency in those historic times. It was the most beautifully designed society at that times where Fire dried mud bricks and Sun-dried bricks were used in building with the use of the wooden structures. The wooden structures were used in the construction of the houses too.

Moreover, the accurate arrangement of streets, houses, and the city itself depicts that it was an enormously civilized social organization.

The city had many parts:

  • The Lower City.
  • The Citadel, which was basically known to have supported public bathrooms, Large residential structures that were designed for the general public.
  • Two Large Assembly Halls for the gatherings.
  • Central Market Place where people shopped for their houses.

Moreover, the most of the houses were single storied but few were double stories that showed their pace with modern development. Every house had its own well to obtain underground water for bathing and drinking. Plus, the perfect drainage system was developed where all the wastes were collected in the main streams in the city. Proper systems were also developed to store the rain water.

Dams for Flood

From archeological researches, it is known that at times two river used to flow, Ghakkar and Hakra river, but now these rivers have vanished but they left their marks on the history. The city had its protection from the overflooding of water of Indus river. They had built Dams, and canals systems, even they had changed the course of the river to collect water.

The archeologists also explain that the city might have been abandoned Six times due to river flooding and reconstructed by its people.

Major Buildings

The major buildings after the digging and archaeological study revealed that following were major buildings of Mohenjo Daro civilization:

  • Great Granary
  • Great Hall
  • Numerous Public Baths
  • Great Bath
  • Colonnade Courtyard
  • Pillared Hall or College Hall

Other Important Findings:

  • Dancing Girl
  • Seven Stranded Necklace
  • King ” The Priest”
  • Seal of Pashupati

Mohenjo Daro: An Ancient Gem of the Indus Valley Civilization

Credit: Youlin Magazine